Lebasque was born at Champigne, France, in 1865. After studying at the School of Fine Art of Angers he went to Paris in 1886 and for a short time was a student of Bonnat, then of Humbert, whom he assisted in his decoration of the Pantheon. However, it is certain that his association with Pissaro in the environment of Paris lent most influence to Lebasques life and work.
By exhibiting at the Salon des Independants, he met in 1893 Luce and Signac and within the next few years adopted the artistic style, pointillism. In 1896 he made his debut at the Salon and was involved in the establishment of the Salon d'Automne in 1903. He was a member of their committee until his death.
Lebasque held the greatest possible admiration for Matisse, Rouault, Dufy and Manguin. In fact it was Henri Manguin who introduced him to the Mediterranean, the coast of which was to be the biggest influence on his work. Though he continued to live and work in various regions, his favourite place was located between Sanary and Nice. During the next 30 years the people he painted tended to be members of his family and the decor of his images the interiors or gardens or surroundings of his houses. After living in St. Tropez and Ste.-Maxime he finally settled at Canet.
Though Lebasque was never one for the limelight and, indeed, kept himself quite secluded, he was very well known and respected throughout his lifetim. A selection of this delicate artist's work was presented in 1937 at the Exposition of the Masters of the Independent Art at the Petit-Palais in Geneva. In 1957, 20 years after Lebasque's death, a further major retrospective was held at the Musée des Ponchettes in Nice.